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Spetsnaz - Russian special forces combat training

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Опубликовал: drew 27.10.2013 01:00:00
Russian special forces combat training Spetsnaz is an umbrella term f...
Russian special forces combat training

Spetsnaz is an umbrella term for any special forces in Russian, literally "special purpose forces". Historically, the term referred to the military special units controlled by the military intelligence service GRU, the Spetsnaz GRU. Currently, the term is also used to describe any special purpose units or task forces of other ministries (even the Ministry of Emergency Situations special rescue unit), also in some other post-Soviet countries. The concept of using special tactics and strategies was originally proposed by the Russian military theorist Michael Svechnykov (executed during the Great Purge in 1938), who envisaged the development of unconventional warfare capabilities in order to overcome disadvantages that conventional forces may face in the field. Practical implementation was begun by the "grandfather of the spetsnaz" Ilya Starinov. During World War II, reconnaissance and sabotage forces were formed under the supervision of the Second Department of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces. These forces were subordinate to the commanders of Fronts.

In 1950, Georgy Zhukov advocated the creation of 46 military spetsnaz companies (each company consisted of 120 servicemen). It was the first time after World War II, when the term "spetsnaz" appeared as an original name of the separate military branch. Later, these companies were expanded to battalions, and then to brigades, respectively. However, certain separate companies (orSpN) and detachments (ooSpN) existed along with brigades until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Military spetsnaz included 14 army and two naval brigades, together with numerous separate detachments and companies, which operated under the guidance of the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU), and collectively are known as Spetsnaz GRU. These units and formations existed under the highest possible secrecy and were disguised as Soviet paratroopers, bearing their uniform and insignia (army spetsnaz), or as naval infantrymen (naval spetsnaz).

24 years after the origin of military Spetsnaz, the first counter-terrorist unit was established by Yuri Andropov, the head of KGB. In the late 1970s and through the 1980s various special purpose units were created within the KGB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD).

In the 1990s, special detachments were established within the Federal Penitentiary Service (FSIN) and the Airborne Troops (VDV), respectively. Today, even some civil agencies with non-police functions have created their own special units, which are also called "spetsnaz", such as "Leader" special centre within the Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS).
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